A standard indoor track is designed similarly to an outdoor track, but is only metres in length and has between four and eight lanes, each with width between 0.
Track and field stadium[ edit ] A typical layout of an outdoor track and field stadium A standard outdoor track is in the shape of a stadium metres in length, and has at least eight lanes 1.
While soft ground, such as grass, is generally avoided, races may start and finish on soft ground or within a track and field stadium.
Oscar Pistoriusa double amputee, has competed in the Olympics. A track-side judge monitoring technique at the Summer Olympics in StockholmSweden. The sports within athletics do not have their own independent governing bodies at either international or continental level; instead, all fall under the athletics authorities.
Athletes with physical disabilities have competed at separate international events since It was initially known as the International Amateur Athletics Federation but changed later its name to reflect that the sport had moved away from amateurism towards professionalism in the late s.
Road racing courses come in two primary types: Compete with a sighted guide. Such venues ensure that events take place in a relatively standardised manner, as well as improving the safety of athletes and enjoyment for spectators.
Severe obstacles such as deep ditches, high barriers and thick undergrowth not normally present; the course should be able to be completed whilst remaining on foot throughout.
The International Paralympic Committee governs the competitions in athletics, and hosts the Paralympic Gameswhich have continued since Modern All-weather running tracks are covered by a synthetic weather-resistant running surface, which typically consists of rubber either black An overview of the high jump an athletic sport or colored EPDM granulesbound by polyurethane or latex resins.
Racewalkers must always have a foot in contact with the ground and their advancing leg must be straightened, not bent at the knee — failure to follow these rules results in disqualification from the race. At a more basic level, many forms of athletics demand very little in terms of venue requirements; almost any open space or area of field can provide a suitable venue for basic running, jumping and throwing competitions.
A collision between Josh Cassidy a wheelchair racer and Tiki Gelana a leading female marathoner at the London Marathon brought the issue into the spotlight again. Categories[ edit ] Masters athleticsthe age groups spanning five years for athletes aged 35 and above.
Because of space limitations, meetings held at indoor facilities do not hold many of athletics events typically contested outdoors.
Older track facilities may have nonstandard track lengths, such as yards Older tracks may be cinder -covered. Spectators would gamble on the outcome of the walking competitions.
Racewalking is the only sport in athletics in which judges monitor athletes on their technique. Racewalking is a form of competitive walking that usually takes place on open-air roads, although running tracks are also occasionally used. While a small number of purpose-built courses exist, the vast majority of cross country running courses are created by cordoning a specific area within any open natural land, typically a parkwoodland or greenspace near a settlement.
Venues[ edit ] Professional athletics almost exclusively takes place in one of three types of venue: Road courses[ edit ] A typical road running course on the inner-city roads of Toronto The surface of road races is highly important and the IAAF dictate that the courses must be along man-made roads, bicycle paths or footpaths.
Courses set along major roads of cities are typical of road running events, and traffic is usually cordoned off from the area during the competition.
Senior athletics, open class with no upper age limit but, some limitations on younger people competing in endurance events Under 23athlete under the age of 23 years Juniorathlete under the age of 20 years Youthathlete under the age of 18 years Athletes with disabilities[ edit ] Competitor in a wheelchair race at the Summer Paralympics.
In Masters athletics it is far more common to make an accommodation for athletes with a disability. Blind Ivy Granstrom set numerous Masters world records while being guided around the track.
The speed of wheel chair racers has caused difficulties for race organisers in properly staggering their start times compared to runners. The IAAF has member nations and territories, which are divided into six continental areas or area associations.
There is no standardised form of cross country course and each venue is significantly defined by the environment it contains — some may be relatively flat and featureless, while others may be more challenging with natural obstacles, tight turns, and undulating ground. Cross country courses[ edit ] A cross country race taking place at a snowy park in the United States.
Most major marathons have wheelchair divisions and the elite racers consistently beat the runners on foot. A classified T12 athlete for example, is a track athlete with a visual impairment. Historically, tracks were covered by a dirt running surface.
Legally blind Marla Runyan ran in the and Olympics and won a gold medal in the metres at the Pan American Games. However, because of space limitations, indoor tracks may have other nonstandard lengths, such as yard High Jump Equipment.
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In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historical usage of the term. The word "athletics" is rarely used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region.
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following text represents a simple approach to the high jump by Dr. Lohmann of the German Democratic Republic. It is based on a translated summary of the high jump chapter in the author’s book Running, Jumping, Throwing, published by Sportverlag Berlin.
Re. High jump is an athletic event where one must jump, from only one foot, over a supported bar which is raised higher as the competition goes on.
If the jumper doesn’t make it over, or knocks off the high jump bar, the jumper gains a foul.Download